In addition to populist sentiments, science also favored star study over the perusal of animal entrails. The globe is a c opy of a Greek original, which was painted to show the positions of the constell ations. Thirty years later, Geminus, an obscure mathematician and scientist acti ve about 70 B. He had been the pupil of a learned but obscure Syrian scholar named Poseidonius of Orontes, who sided with the Chaldei.
An enthusiastic syncretist, Poseidonius had correlated Semitic traditions with Greek philosophy and passed to his disciples a rich ecumenical body of religious wisdom that proclaimed the heavens eternal and humanity the heir of generous go ds. A year after Cicero was appointed augur in 53 B. He followe d with an early theological treatise, De Natura Deorum Concerning the Nature of the Gods , a thoughtful centrist essay that credits Zeno, the fourth-century B.
Overall, Cicero displays the influence of his teacher by respecting both pro-astrology a nd anti-astrology points of view and by balancing the pros and cons of divinatio n. Near the end of the Republic, which received a death blow on March 15, 44 B. In the chaotic months before his own execution in 43 B. He countered the earlier treatise with De Di vinatione About Divination , a detailed essay that contended that astrology is ignorant superstition, as are beliefs in omens, prodigies, sybils, portents, aus pices, and prophetic dreams.
That same year, he completed De Fata Concerning Fa te , which debated the existence of free will. Eventually, the zodiacal houses derived their titles from concrete nouns desi gnating the scorpion, lion, maiden, fish, twins, water-carrier, ram, bull, arche r, scales, and crab. Into the first quarter of the second century A. For two-and-a-half centuries, these vocal Carneadites debated whether free will out weighed zodiacal influence on human fate. Although philosophers on both sides of the issue dominated the academic arena, Roman plebeians had long before adopted Babylonian assumptions about Mars.
They worshipped him as their patron divinity and honored the first of March, the month of Mars, as the first day of the year. According to the biographer Suetonius, Augustus temporarily banned horoscopy in 33 B. However, after Augustus became emperor, he sought astrological counsel during crises when the emerging Empire needed hea venly guidance.
The shift of imperial attitude toward astrology preceded a delug e of sidereal obsessions. Seneca quotes the rhetorician Arellius Fuscus in a dra matic paean to astrology: If the pretensions of astrology are genuine, why do no t men of every age devote themselves to this study: Why from our infancy do we n ot fix our eyes on nature and on the gods, seeing that the stars unveil themselv es for us, and that we can live in the midst of the gods?
Why exhaust ourselves in efforts to acquire eloquence, or devote ourselves to the profession of arms? Rather let us lift up our minds by means of the science which reveals to us the future, and before the appointed hour of death let us taste the pleasures of the blessed. Cumont , 82 A devotee of the zodiac by 19 B. Subsequent emperors studied their own sun signs and emulated Asian rulers in demanding accurate prognostication from court astrologers.
Analysts surmise that the imperial court may have been less gullible than shrewd: they may have broad cast zodiacal divination for propaganda to bolster public relations, especially when forecasts lauded the government, justified the caesaristic autocracy, and p redicted beneficent outcomes. Whatever their reason in courting the stars, the i mperial hierarchy ended the controversy: augury was out, the zodiac was in. To t he end of its five-century rule, the Roman Empire never lacked astrologers. An erudite supporter of the pro-astrology e lite, he was too obtuse to suit the needs of the average reader of his time and died in exile in 45 A.
According to the biographer Plutarch, a more appealing scholar gained popularity with the public around A.
To assess star p ower in prehistory, Tarrutius overturned the usual pursuit of the future by movi ng backward to prehistory. He informed the emperor of innately insidious court upstarts and inf luenced imperial advisers by charting their futures. Their l earning deserves the admiration of mankind; for they were so solicitous as even to be able to predict, long beforehand, with divining minds, the signs of the we ather which was to follow in the future.
Ti berius valued his learning and advice over that of envious priests. During a period of doubt in 52 A. Hale n. Under these circumstanc es, it is not surprising that emperors of the Julio-Claudian line depended on as tral influence to sustain their dynasty. In general, where the emperor led, the intelligentsia followed. Fed by differing points of view, a public wrangl e arose: poets lauded the night skies and the stargazers who described them; cav iling satirists reviled the whole business. In his caustic, misogynistic sixth satire, written about A. Already she has a rep ort on you!
When will she bury her sister and uncles?
Sapientia Astrologica: Astrology, Magic and Natural Knowledge, ca. 1250-1800
Will her lover survive Wh en she is gone? What greater boon could the gods vouchsafe? Yet she at least c annot tell what the gloomy planet of Saturn Portends, or under what sign joyful Venus emerges, Which months of the year are assigned to loss, and which to profi t. Be sure to keep out of the way of that type, too; you will see her Carrying r ound in her hands, like a ball of scented amber, A well-thumbed Almanac. She no longer consults, but rather She herself is consulted.
When her husband is leavin g for camp Or home, she will not go too, if Thrasyllus and his sums detain her. If she is less well off, sh e will wander between the pillars At the racetrack, drawing cards for her fortun e and letting the seer Inspect her palm and forehead, while popping her lips as instructed.
Juvenal , 56—57 Keen on ridiculing women, Juvenal tweaked the fl aunted sophistication of the Roman Empire by associating female followers of ast rology with the underside of the Circus Maximus, the gathering place of racetrac k touts, grifters, and coaxing streetwalkers. Such lethal ridicule r ailed in vain at the immersion of Romans in the zodiac and its prognostications. Because Roman astrologers derived technology and theory from skilled Mediterran ean artisans and improved the accuracy of astral readings, their predictive powe rs improved.
In the first century A. Around 15 A. Profound in its vision and daring in its themes, the work parallels the Christian concept of eternity: Thrones have peris hed, peoples passed from dominion to slavery, from captivity to empire, but the same months of the year have always brought up on the horizon the same stars. Al l things that are subject to death are also subject to change, the years glide a way, and lands become unrecognizable, each century transforms the features of na tions, but Heaven remains invariable, and preserves all its parts; the flight of time adds nothing to them, nor does age take aught from them.
It will remain th e same forever, because forever it has been the same. Thus it appeared to the ey es of our forefathers, thus will our descendants behold it. It is God, for it is unchangeable throughout the ages. Cumont , 60 In his masterly verse theol ogy, Manilius challenged pagan notions of creation, star configurations, zodiaca l signs, body parts governed by each constellation, and astral projection.
In op position to simplistic mythology, he noted that, if the stars were as powerful a s they are numerous, they would have scorched Olympus and devoured the earth in flame. Gauquelin , 53 The implications are clear: analyzing behavior o r character via sun signs is a chancy business. Sent to Rome as a government liaison from Alexandri a, he parried the question of divination by proclaiming that all star worship is sinful because it trivializes God. Citing Genesis, Philo proclaimed that God created the heavenly bodies on the fourth day, two days before he formed Adam and Eve. Philo surmised that the stars are virtuous elements that determine events, just as the Bible i ndicates in its opening verses.
From his perspective, they strayed from ort hodoxy by venerating creation instead of the creator. In the second century, lit erary and scientific support of zodiacal lore proved that star study was more su bstantial than a craze or a hobby. He described the inventor Daeda lus as educating his son Icarus on astrology before testing the wings he designe d to fly them out of bondage in Crete.
A generation after Lucian, he aler and anatomist Galen, a native of Pergamum in present-day Turkey, became cou rt physician to the emperors Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, and Septimius Severus. A fter Galen retired from practice, he wrote treatises on medical issues that he k new firsthand. His Prognostication of Disease by Astrology favors the ancient be lief that the moon in the twelve zodiac signs triggers disease and responds to a ppropriate treatments favoring astral healing. His writings have remained in cir culation and are still cited by astral physicians today.
In A. Buoyed by an e cstasy of sidereal glory, he confided: Mortal as I am, I know that I am born for a day, but when I follow the serried multitude of the stars in their circular c ourse, my feet no longer touch the earth; I ascend to Zeus himself to feast me o n ambrosia, the food of the gods. Gauquelin , A scholar as well as an astral worshipper, Ptolemy became the first astronomer to categorize stars by ma gnitude and the first to describe the parameters of the Milky Way.
His cosmology pictured the universe as a series of concentric circles floating in crystal-cle ar ether. He developed a rationale for astrology, which he published in his Tetr abiblos Four Books , didactic treatises on star power that defended horoscopy a nd legitimized the link between the zodiac and human character. One of the great minds of the classical era, Ptolemy pondered obscure points of science. One phi losophical question he wrestled was the moment when life began, at conception or birth, a conundrum that bedeviled later centuries. His conclusion draws on univ ersal power: Conception is regarded as the natural beginning of life.
His subsequent works clearly defined astrological elements. In Centrilocus he collected sayings related to heavenly bodies, for e xample, that people born when planets are at their height grow tall or attain su bnormal height if they are born when planets are descending.
He also stated that beauties owe their physical perfection to the influence of Venus on their natal houses, just as generals receive military acumen from the ascendence of Mars at their births. His thirteen-book astronomy text, Almagest, which remained in use un til the end of the Middle Ages, formalized zodiacal study with exacting descript ions and locations of 1, stars. A classical masterwork, it standardized signs of the zodiac, changing Chelae to Libra, the name it still bears. Only two mino r advancements eclipsed the Almagest. In the next decade, an anonymous cartograp her produced the Planisphere of Geruvigus , a constellation map as seen from ear th.
Also, Muslim astronomers classified stars of the first three magnitudes, whi ch still carry Arabic names. The data influenced Arab cosmographer Al-Sufi, who produced atlases that, centuries later , were accurate enough to guide Hispanic explorers to the New World. The blame is indeed given to the creator and ruler of the heavens and of the stars. He stood against these and four prestigious Christian astrologers: the zo ologist Horapollo, author of Hieroglyphics; geographer Gaius Julius Solinus, who wrote Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium A Collection of Memorable Things on the origins of the world; Julius Firmicus Maternus, author of the Mathesis Learning ; and Bishop Synesius of Cyrene, a Neoplatonist and follower of the occult who believed that the Star of Bethlehem was a pivotal example of a celestial message.
Against all suspect practices, Augustine made an irrevocable stand for orthodo x Christianity. Drawing on polemics, he leveled question after question at the i nconsistencies of the poet Varro, who had produced Res Divinae On Religion aro und 30 B. One by one, Augustine battered the proponents of star lore and astral healin g—Pythagoras, Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Aesculapius, Hermes Trismegistus, t he Stoics. Calling on the wisdom of Origen, Hippolitus, and Lactantius, early Ch ristian dogmatists and anti-cultists, Augustine thundered his rejection of the o ccult and fatalism, which he called pernicious and fatuous.
In place of the pagan metaphors of twelve zodiacal signs, Christian apologists saw the universe as an emblem of the human relationship to God. For the western Mediterranean, the rise of Christian ity spelled the demise of seers and horoscopes. Sages a nd astrologers counseled clients on heavenly influences; for instance, advising them that dreams came true under certain signs, but misled and confused under ot her signs. Persian encyclopedist, court physician, and pharmacologist Ibn Sina, called Avicenna in Latin, recorded astral calculations and zodiacal medical trea tments in Arabic from to European scientists translated into Latin Kh itab ash-Shifa Healing of the Soul , Qanun fi at-tibb Canon of Medicine , and other of his books on philosophy, medicine, mathematics, and astronomy.
They also published the star studies and a letter on astrology composed by Moses Mai monides, a Jewish philosopher and court physician of Saladin, sultan of Egypt an d Syria. In addition to theory and texts, this pro-science era produced numerous models of the astrolabe, a two-dimensional star plotter that guided navigators and enabled Arab astrologers to cast horoscopes for all levels of society, from caliphs to camel drivers.
Around , the term astrology failed to delineate th e growing expanse of zodiacal writing. An example of special ization comes from Roger Bacon, a Franciscan monk who composed the Speculum Astr onomiae The Mirror of Astronomy , a scientific text that draws on Kabbala, alch emy, and astronomy to justify astral prediction. On the popular side of astrolog y, during the Middle Ages, people hired electional astrologers to assist in fami ly decisions. Prospective parents often sought soothsayers to chart influences o n a child at conception and birth and to foretell talents, abilities, and tastes.
The electional astrologer became as essential to family well-being as a physician, attorney, or parish priest. In the late-thirteenth century, astronom y and the study of the zodiac progressed in steady increments. Johannes Campanus systematized the twelve zodiacal houses and issued astrological tables to facil itate the preparation of horoscopes. An open-minded German theoretician and Domi nican friar, Albertus Magnus, produced Metaphysica Naturalia Natural Metaphysic s and De Coelis et Mundi Concerning the Heavens and Earth , learned treatises that synthesized knowledge of the universe by drawing on a wide range of tenets derived from ancient Arabs, Babylonians, and Greeks.
In The Secrets of Women, he allied the progression of nine zodiacal houses with the nine months of human ge station and blamed inauspicious planets for stillbirths and mental and physical retardation. His willingn ess to learn from seers of early times earned him the title doctor universalis. However, after considering the pros and cons of astral projec tion, Aquinas abandoned divination. One of the orthodox Renaissance churchmen, h e pursued instead the Augustine philosophy, which thoroughly denounced horoscopy and damned as heretics all who sought guidance from the stars.
Although Aquinas believed that the heavens control the tides, seasons, and human bodies, he decl ared in his Summa Theologia Highest Theology that free will overrules any powe r that threatens choices and consequences. Aquinian stringency preceded a necess ary shift in astrology—its divorce from religion and its establishment as a pseudo -science. Popularized in the Renaissance, Western astrology dropped its traditio nal ties to God and religion and developed into an adjunct to mathematics and sc ience.
A practical aid to the surveyor, builder, midwife, sailor, farmer, and he rder, astrology concentrated on lunar cycles, seasons, and weather prediction. A demand for translations of ancient Greek, Egyptian, Arabic, and Babylonian text s and horaries sparked a flourishing business in zodiac calendars, almanacs, and astral handbooks.
In , Alessandro Piccolomini of Amalfi printed the first c ollection of astral charts in De le Stelle Fisse Concerning the Fixed Stars , a practical compendium that introduced a lettering system to identify individual stars in the constellations. Followers standardized divination, a series of proc edures that predicted the best time for planting, signing a contract, arranging a marriage, building a house, or attacking an enemy.
In Italy, Guido Bonatti ear ned a devout following for his Liber Astronomicus Book of Astronomy , a manual that amalgamated traditional and Arabic astrology. Martin Luther supported Progn osticatio in Latino Prognostication in Latin , the work of astrologer Johannes Lichtenberger, by declaring that heavenly signs are the work of God and angels. A factor of court life throughout Europe, horoscopy was a job for t he royal astrologer, who often wielded power over royalty and courtiers and over the Pope and his bishops as well.
While advising the Queen on international matters, Dee wa s alternately lauded, rewarded, castigated, interrogated, and imprisoned, depend ing on the outcome of affairs and his ability to project what people wanted to h ear. To his benefit, Elizabeth outmaneuvered Spain in Apart from politics , astrology was the focus of crucial research in the late Renaissance. Paracelsu s, a Swiss physician, experimented on the unconscious mind by coordinating medic al lore with alchemy and astrology. His uncanny accuracy provoked both admiration and fear in the French.
Be cause Nostradamus doubted that humanity was ready to possess its future, he fore cast in cryptic quatrains such as this: By night shall come through the forest o f Reines, Two parts Voltorte Herne, the white stone, The black monk in grey with in Varennes, Elected captain, causeth Tempest, fire, blood running. Pursued by murderous rebels, the French king disguised himself as a monk an d fled from Paris to Varennes.
The pack at his heels brought him down along with his disdainful queen, Marie Antoinette. As a result of technology that replaced the labo r-intensive job of hand-copying texts, low-cost printing broadened the reach of astrology from an exclusive royal science to a thriving cottage industry that ap pealed to the reading public at large. At the same time, astrologers altered the ir vocabulary and selected common terms in place of Greek and Latin phrases. The scholar Francis Bacon, polemicist and crea tor of the modern essay, was a noted fence-sitter on the issue of zodiacal valid ity.
This era in the history of stargazing demanded a full accounting of astrological method and an explanation of interpretations of heavenly phenomena. The public shunned guesswork and mumbojumbo and demanded tec hnological accuracy through telescopy, earth and star measure, and computation a nd analysis. Artistic representation of Renaissance astrologers illustrates the abandonment of pagan star-charters. By , Peter Bienewi tz, known in Latin as Petrus Apianus, executed an elegant woodcut of forty-eight constellations. On a voyage to the East Indies, Dutch navigator Pieter Dircksz Keyser enhanced zodiacal drawings by appending twelve constellations to the sout hern star map.
Attorney Johann Bayer improved on the heavenly layout with his star atlas , Uranometria Uranus Measure. Employing data from Keyser, he cataloged 1, s tars and 60 constellations, grouped stars in the southern horizon into new const ellations, and assigned Greek letters to individual stars—both named and undesigna ted—within a grouping; for example, alpha Tauri, or the alpha of Taurus, is anothe r name for Aldebaran. His calculati ons proved that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe. Well situated in an island obser vatory that Danish King Frederick II built for him at Uraniborg, Brahe studied s tar movements night by night.
By , he had measured the positions of star s, proved that their orbits were elliptical, and issued a catalog that served as tronomers for centuries. The scientific community embraced Kepler as warmly as they had welcomed t he work of Copernicus and Brahe. In , his Mysterium Cosmographicum Cosmogra phic Mystery demonstrated five planetary orbits.
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These patterns follow a mathematical f ormula by which astronomers can substantiate the relationships of heavenly bodie s at any given time in the past or future and can duplicate the harmony of the p lanets, which Kepler notated on staff paper in chord progressions. The explosion of scientific advancement moved on to new territory in Lincolnshire, England, a nd the laboratory of alchemist and mathematician Isaac Newton, the founder of di fferential calculus. Th ree years later, he published his masterwork, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia M athematica The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , which states the laws of universal gravitation.
One iconoclast belied any n otion that scientific advancement is easy. In this same post-Renaissance period of fervent scientific inquiry, Galileo Galilei conducted experiments in physics that preceded the invention of reliable telescopes. In , he published The St arry Messenger , a slim volume that described the Milky Way as a vast carpet of thousands of stars.
A skilled mathematician and astronomer, he declared that the universe stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unles s one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in wh ich it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its charact ers are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is h umanly impossible to understand a single word of it. These discover ies formed the substance of his revolutionary dissertation.
Against adversaries, he maintained tha t truth depends not on dogma or tradition, but on observation and objective anal ysis. Church apologist Christopher Clavius denounced the new cosmology as defian t of God. Pope Paul V sent for Galileo and questioned his premise that the sun i s the center of the universe. For nearly twenty years, Galileo remained silent. In he published Diologo sopra i due massimi sistemi del monto Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World , a witty exchange that prompted the church t o try him for heresy.
The Inquisition found him guilty. Sentenced to prison, he bided hi s time. Pope Urban eventually commuted the sentence to house arrest in Siena and later in Florence, where Galileo continued his research despite diminished sigh t and hearing. Because empirical science had determined that the earth did not s tand at the center of the solar system and that stars did not attract each other , the Babylonian suppositions about the zodiac and heavenly motions sank to the level of ignorant tales.
Other monarchs emulated his edict. Only t he English retained the complicated zodiacal lists and tables. For healing, the fai thful called on Robert Fludd, an English physician and author of Integrum Morbor um Mysterium The Whole Mystery of Diseases , a study of evil forces and their i mpact on bodily ills. In the mid-seventeenth century, William Lilly, a medical a strologer from Leicestershire, grew wealthy from his predictions contained in tw enty volumes on astrology. Lilly also predicted the rise of the Puritan faction, their unprecedented incarceration an d decapitation of King Charles I, and the cessation of the monarchy, which occur red two years later.
He proved himself innocent of conspiracy against the crown a nd gained a release. These two works l ed the field in precision until , when Johann Elert Bode introduced maps sho wing the shift of constellations by month. During this same period, French astro nomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille journeyed to the Cape of Good Hope to observe an d measure stars, which he mapped in in his Coelum Australe Stelliferum Sta r Catalog of the Southern Sky , a comprehensive listing of 10, stars and cons tellations, many of which he named.
His work brought the list of star patterns t o A resurgence of interest in the zodiac coincided with the rise of romantic ism, a complex attitude toward nature and the self that emphasized mysticism, th e occult, and individualism. Bernbaum , The English reclaimed medieval zodiacal lo re in the late eighteenth century, with the French following a generation later. The Germans, led by the poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, were the last to reviv e it.
Throughout Europe, people were holding seances, consulting ephemerides, an d studying the Kabbala, an ancient body of mystical Jewish teachings. In , a strology entered the print media. Robert Cross Smith, who predicted national dis asters in his Manual of Astrology, introduced popular horoscopy with the publica tion of Straggling Astrologer, a weekly magazine intended for the masses. Significant to popular horoscopy was the development of theosophy, the stud y of God through mystical insight into divine essence, a universal unknown.
In 1 , American theosophists founded a national league. In the last quarter of the ni neteenth century, Alan Leo, a modern theosophist and publisher of Astrological M agazine , revived medieval zodiacal texts. To solve human inequalities by instru cting the world on horary astrology, he mailed pamphlets to people who wanted to see into the future.
His influence rejuvenated in Germany an interest in predic tions through sun signs. By winnowing out quackery, German astrologers evolved a modern system of astrology. Numerous twentieth-century leaders, scholars, and artists have embraced astrology, including financier J. Composer Gustav H olst produced a symphony, The Planets, which expresses the power of heavenly inf luence; British choreographer Frederick Ashton created a ballet, The Horoscope , on the theme of sun signs and love.
Psychologist Carl G. Jung, a Nobel prize-wi nner and pioneer of intuitive psychology, castigated skeptics for summary dismis sal of centuries of ancient wisdom and celestial observation. He lauded the retu rn of zodiacal horoscopes because they supported his theory of archetypal or ori ginal patterns of behavior.
In his treatise Synchronicity , Jung related the zo diac to the concept of a cosmic wheel, which turns inexorably in the heavens thr ough a cycle of 25, years. These rotations alter lives via arbitrary influenc es, which create sounds, colors, and heavenly vibrations; for example, wind, rai nbows, and ocean tides. As did other physicians and counselors, he applied the z odiac to his patients to map such physical and emotional weaknesses as susceptib le hearts in people born in Leo, kidney problems in Librans, unstable ankles in Aquarians, and foot problems in Pisceans.
By categorizing similar psychological susceptibilities, Jung diagnosed the faulty temperaments of unstable patients an d mapped out potential cures. In Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche, he use d astrology to assess character and to predict the success of marriages and care ers. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, astral study deviated from Ba bylonian determinism.
According to Frank A. Br own, the biological clock predisposes the individual to success, frustration, or failure. Prestigious people such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Japanese trade barons, an d former First Lady Nancy Reagan have sought these latter-day predictions and an alyses. In France, Germaine Soleil, known as Madame Soleil, broadcast an astrolo gy column on television from until her death in Today, newspapers in the United States, Great Britain, India, and Japan disseminate a onesize-fits-all horoscope that perpetuates wisdom accum ulated over 4, years.
Al terations to Gemini, Capricorn, Sagittarius, and Aquarius are slight enough to m aintain connections between a human pair and the star twins, a blended animal sh ape and Capricorn, a bow and the heavenly archer, and a water vessel and the sta rry watercarrier. Egyptians carved circles compose d of animal and human shapes and hieroglyphs representing the twelve houses arou nd the lids of sarcophagi and inscribed them on pyramid walls and canopi or buri al urns.
Above the reclining figure, a crescent moon and stars link the soul to the u niverse. In more European and Near Eastern art and architecture, zodiacal symbol ism remains a design constant. Inscribed over the doorways of Romanesque and Got hic sanctuaries, signs of the zodiac enhance universal themes and characterize t he passage of time and the labors of the seasons. Representative of the first ce ntury A. Nea r his right hand, the shapes of Cancer, Gemini, Taurus, and Sagittarius stand ou t from the background in high relief.
During the Medieval era, the zodiac remained a popu lar theme. Seal rings, keys, jewelry, and family stamps sometimes preserved the sun sign of the patriarch as a modified family crest. Traveling nobles used thei r rings and stamps for sealing letters and legal documents and for establishing identity with banks, embassies, or mercantile houses during sojourns in unfamili ar territory. The dynastic motifs omitted family or institutional mottoes becaus e there was not enough room.
They sometimes combined a single zodiacal figure, s uch as the crab, along with the family initial. Less detailed than a formal shie ld, these insignia were still too complicated to be forged. In addition to ident ification, illuminations on the initial letter of the first word on parchments a nd religious documents incorporated sun signs, some indicating the conjunction o f heavenly bodies at the time of a birth or historic event.
The fact that subscr ibers commissioned ornate copy work to religious orders indicates that St. Art from the Renaissance to the present maintains zodiacal figures as celestial iconography. On the Southern Hemisphere, his cosmology features fanciful drawi ngs of Orion, Cetus, and Hydra on a twelvepart circle. The facing map, which cov ers the Northern Hemisphere, names and depicts all twelve signs of the zodiac. Some late Renaissance sculpture and bas-relie f display a combination of earthly and zodiacal figures.
The pose depicts the semi-recumbent patriarc h, well muscled with full beard and abundant hair. He bears an oar in his left h and and cradles a cornucopia in his right. During an era that saw the ris e of feudal estates, noble houses, and aristocratic and ruling dynasties, creato rs of heraldry devised conventions to honor the great. To aid the n onreader and to keep the rising bourgeoisie in their place, workers adapted and embellished zodiacal symbols to adorn genealogies, livery, armory, escutcheons, and crests.
Artisans blazoned these grandiose designs in gilt and silk threads o n throne upholstery and ceremonial robes. Woodcrafters carved them on table legs and treasury casks and fitted them into intaglio circles and shields at the ent rances of baronial estates and lordly palaces. Calligraphers inked them on vellum and parchment and painted them on the doors of coaches, armorial cabinets, and the logos of vintners, drapers, and harness makers chosen to serv e the royal family. The most familiar of these heraldic crests adorn coins minte d to commemorate a monarch or event. Spent worldwide as Europeans opened markets in the New World and traded with the Orient, monies carried the arrogance of ro yalty to mercantile centers and obscure outposts.
Failed voyages dumped whole ca rgoes in the sea, where divers still scour the ocean floor for crested doubloons and pieces of eight. A common figure is the lion, which may be lunging, lying down, sleeping, sitting , squatting frontward on its haunches, walking, guarding, or standing. The minut e details of European crests showcase fantastic augmentations of the beast in na ture; for example, winged, robed, collared, aflame, or stylized to suggest the f eatures of a gryphon or dragon. Other zod iacal symbols are less common to heraldry than Leo, but no less fanciful.
Fish—eit her alone or paired as they are in the zodiac—occupy one entire wing of natural he raldry. They appear as stylized sea creatures or in the natural shapes of dolphi n, salmon, herring, whale, trout, eel, and pike. The heraldic crab and scorpion flaunt claws, pincers, and stingers to demonstrate challenge or menace. The ram, goat, and bull, with either straight or twined horns, represent their own style of defiance or independence in a family line, company logo, or university histo ry.
Groups or institutions stressing fair trade, justice, and impartiality combi ne Virgo and Libra with depictions of the maiden with scales in hand. The archer , human twins, and water bearer are less common among zodiacal symbols used on c rests, perhaps because they represent virtues less valued to heraldry. Not to be outdone, the underclasses formed their own heraldic conventions. Trademarks and the logos of colleges, publishing houses, religious groups, and manufacturers e cho the popularity of certain figures found in heraldry.
Leo in a variety of for ms and poses is most common, especially in Britain and its former colonies, for which the lion is a national symbol. Painted escutcheons commonly display gold f or background or highlight; the lion itself is often a bold red. For companies a nd financial houses wishing to appear even-handed and trustworthy, Virgo with sc ales in hand traditionally tops a decorated shield or entablature. Among world shipping lines, numer ous fish symbols, ranging from unembellished glyph to ornate line drawings, refl ect the ancient tradition pairing sea creatures with luck.
As emblems of Christ, the fish appears on bumper stickers and lapel pins, denoting members of Christian fraternal organizations and sodalities. The bull and ram highlight tra demarks for companies linked with strength and precision; for example, ironworks , automotive parts, tire manufacturers, and firearms. Cinema Historical cinema r eiterates the use of zodiacal figures in past times.
Classic movies about ancien t Mediterranean civilizations and the rise of Christianity, such as Cleopatra , Ben Hur , The Fall of the Roman Empire , Monty Python and the Holy Grail , Calig ula , Quo Vadis, and Satyricon incorporate planetary symbols and zodiacal glyphs in costuming, hair dressing, jewelry, drapery, and backdrops. To a lesser degree, films on current subjects have used zodiacal figures, for instance, a made-for-TV film replicated the crimes of the notorious Zodiac kill er, a stalker of lone women who picked victims according to sun signs.
Another zodiac-based title, Scorpio, names a s py flick bristling with brutality and a complex doublecross. In this case, the n ame suggests both the venom of the scorpion in nature and the archetypal behavio rs of those born under the sign of Scorpio. Less common in title identification are Aquarius, Sagittarius, Pisces, and Cancer. The latter, which is too closely associated with an often fatal disease, creates an obviously negative connection.
Advertising Zodiacal symbolism abounds in product advertisement and service id entification. Dressed in classic beribboned hair, diaphanous chiton, and leather sa ndals and posed in indolent or ladylike stance, the maiden often graces vials of perfume and jewelry and the trademarks of face soap, hand cream, and shampoo, s uch as Cameo cleansing bars. The psychological impact of these evocative shapes from the zodiac demonstrate the universality of archetypes, particularly those t hat reflect gender stereotypes of the strong, resilient male and the pliant, com ely female.
Space Exploration For obvious reasons, space exploration has relied on names from mythology and history. Important segments of the U. This analysis shows that the history of astrology—in particular, the story of the protracted criticism and ultimate removal of astrology from the realm of legitimate knowledge and practice—is crucial for fully understanding the transition from premodern Aristotelian-Ptolemaic natural philosophy to modern Newtonian science.
Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Front Matter Pages i-lxxxix. Front Matter Pages Ligamentum naturalis philosophiae et metaphysicae: Astrology and Aristotelian Natural Philosophy. Pages After all, biophysicists have found that the effectiveness of medicine and radiological therapy is variable with respect to the hour of the day they are administered; and lunar as well as diurnal periodicities are facts of life throughout the biosphere in which we live.
Meanwhile, until further research answers the big questions, you can still make good use of this new knowledge in your day to day application of astrological principles. For example, if you are undergoing one of those transits notorious for synchronizing with viral attacks or digestive disorders, check to see where you are in your monthly vitality cycle.
It just might mean the difference between a brief sniffle and a real bout with whatever bug is making the rounds! What is more, the larger the sample--and it is ideal to have the largest possible sample--such as of birthdates obtained from catalogues like WHO'S WHO, the more liable are such secondary influences to assert themselves in the data to complicate matters.
It is well known for instance, that "physical types" such as athletes and engineers tend to be born during the autumn months in the north temperature zone, whereas "artistic types" like actors, poets and artists are born in significantly greater numbers during the spring months. Politicians present an even worse situation, their births cresting in late winter and early spring. These seasonal influences, reversing as they do in the two hemispheres, are not at all astrological in nature.
Rather, they are akin to the sort of influences meant by biological clocks, phototropisms and the like and have to do with purely physical and mechanical forces such as light and gravitation. They are no more astrological than, say, the solilunar reactions visible as tides in air, water and rock. There are many ways in which a scientist can counteract or negate the impact of these secondary influences in data so that any pure planetary or zodiacal factors, if they exit, are able to manifest themselves in the final results.
In this article we are aiming to show the research-minded student at least one bona fide way to handle this purification process by dealing with one of the simpler sort of problems one is apt to run across, showing him how to arrive a reasonable authentic astrological effects with a minimum of blood, sweat and tears. This technique may be called the sort of problems one is apt to run across, showing him how to arrive at reasonable authentic astrological effects with a minimum of blood, sweat and tears.
This technique may be called the intramural or intrasample form of analysis. Put simply, it pits the data contained within itself against some of its own related data; this is not doubletalk, strange as it sounds at first. This method is a godsend tot he research plagued by the demo- graphic factors of eminence curves, seasonal variances within types, etc. The subject in which we are immediately interested is longevity-- length of life--as reflected in natal positions in the zodiac of the Sun and Moon.
Our original sample is a bit larger than the one, culled from this same source, that was used to demonstrate the existence of a mild lunisolar cycle in health tone as reported in the November issues of American Astrology. In that former study a total of 7, birthdates were used. In the present study we are able to take advantage of even more, a total of 7, this time, a difference due to the fact that in the former study the specific death date was used while in the current effort only the age is needed about 3.
Now all these deceasees were all notable folks and their births will unavoidably reflect the "eminence curve" typical of American celebrity registers. So how do we handle the data to eliminate this annoying eminence factor? The solution is quite easy and forthright.
We merely arrange the 7, items from youngest to eldest in terms of age at death. Then we take the upper decile, i. In other words, we are provided an out by the data themselves, with two equal-sized samples of cases each--the youngest versus the eldest. Cause of death is, or course, irrelevant and a psychologist or physician would smile approvingly at our assumption that even accidental death is not wholly bereft of internal or psyche- based sponsorship.
They are solid cross-sections of the same population and their births are strewn across the year, effectively abolishing the seasonal as well as other demographic variations that might be playing down on the entire populace of eminent persons. For convenience we are called one group the shortlivers and the other group the longlivers. Since length of life is the only ostensible parameter distinguishing the two samples. We can say at this outset that the ploy was highly productive of results of immense value and interest to all students of astrology, those of tropical and those of sidereal persuasion alike though it is an historical misnomer to use the words persuasion and tropical together; the poor devils didn't have much of a chance, to begin with, to be persuaded one way or the other!
There very definitely are astrological factors differentiating the shortlivers from the longlivers. These factors, as you will be able to see for yourself, function strictly through the sidereal zodiac, but the spread in each case, luckily enough, is wide enough that they may be applied to the tropical concept with nearly the same adequacy in practice.
Length of life has obviously been one of astrology's traditionally important subtopics, judging by ancient literature both Oriental and Occidental; it is rare to encounter an old text that does not proffer tenets and observations along this line, sometimes whole chapters. The Hindus in particular give the matter much detailed attention; we more optimism-slanted Western astrologers tend to duck the issue on philosophical grounds that horoscopic longevity knowledge can be more harmful than helpful, not only to a client but to people of all kinds, including themselves few of us like to entertain thoughts about our own possible extinction.
Still, it may be noted parenthetically at this point, judging transits and progressions as matters of life and death is a persistently popular diversion among astrologers, especially those on the downhill side of As a result of such widespread interest, most students of astrology are aware of the precept that, generally speaking, the fixed signs and the earthly signs tend to be pro-longlife. In the typical case, the references are to the sun signs of the tropical zodiac, occasionally to the ascending and Moon signs as well--and sometimes even to those signs boasting a stellium or more of birth planets.
Inasmuch as we have for this presort consideration only birth 'dates' with which to work, what we have to say here pertains primarily to only Sun and Moon signs. In this connection, by the way, don't number yourself among those idiots who write in, after every published statistical report, telling us all about what we didn't include in our study or what we failed to say.
We have several hundred octogenarian birthcharts in our files, incidentally, and will one day tabulate for publication the Ascendant and house positions, as well as significant aspects, contained in them. Meanwhile, take the time you would ordinarily spend gilding the lilies and spend it on some worthwhile research project of your own. Now do these popularly held ideas really hold water? For the most part the answer is yes, but not in the popularly recognized zodiac, which observation you can make for yourself from the accompanying graphs.
Taurus: April 20 – May 20
These graphs are basically excess-percentage graphs, showing degree moving totals of solar and lunar longitudes, subtracting the short-livers' lines from the longlivers' lines. The Moon positions used are for zone-time Noon at the birthplace; the margin for possible error or range of actual Moon placements is at most plus and minus seven degrees from the Noon longitude. Statistically these margins of probable-error scatter blend into each other and clearly present no problem to the investigator if the sample is large enough to allow such statistical blending to take place. In the interest of saving space we are giving only the Sun's distribution within the elemental triplicities instead of the entire twelve signs separately considered.
That is, the Sun graph here shows the performance with the zodiacal elements: Aries, Leo and Sagittarius superposed; the earthy signs superposed; the airy signs superposed; and the watery signs superposed--in effect folding over three degree arcs of ecliptic longitude. This is done to show how spectacularly fruitful our youngest-versus-eldest stratagem turns out to be in terms of usable knowledge.
Each point on the graph represents the center of a 30 degree zone in the style already familiar to veteran readers of astrological literature of the American Astrology caliber. The next triplicity, however, and the next one after that, representing the earthy and airy signs respectively, tell a quite different story, being substantially above average. The peak of this plus activity, fittingly enough, falls right at the centers of the earthy signs of the classical sidereal zodiac!
The watery signs, true to expected form, return to the below-average status of what must be surely called low overall vitality. In short, the graph shows one thing too clearly to quibble about: there 'is' a distinct zodiacal influence on length of life, but only through the divisions of the zodiac as propounded by astrology's founders and not according to the scheme taught by latter-day corrupters of their concept. The Moon story is equally fascinating, but where the Moon is concerned the triplicities show nothing truly unusual enough to remark about. Instead, the Moon displays an important role in the longevity drama via the quadruplicities!
As the lunar graph shows so lucidly, with the quadruplicities superposed four 90 degree arcs of the ecliptic folded over , cardinal signs are only so-so in their contribution to vitality, being only slightly above average. The fixed signs of the tropical zodiac represent, however, utter disaster in terms of length of life, being far below normal and reaching a low point at exactly the degree marking the natural lineaments of the sidereal zodiacs' cardinal signs!
The tropical mutable situation is just the opposite, featuring a peak, all right, but that peak again falls exactly where it should if the sidereal zodiac is real and the other one phony. To put it bluntly, this study, like all the others, behaves just as though the tropical zodiac didn't exist at all. But ah, the hoary old texts of bygone ancients are proven to have been correct all along! Fortunately, as we intimated earlier, the results from these tabulations are usable in any form, either tropical or sidereal, so don't get yourself uptight about the fact that for the thousandth or so time an objective statistical study of 'something real' was made with the result that the wrong zodiac--wrong according to the popular tropical stereotype--surfaced instead of the popular tropical one.
It seems not to have happened any other way. If you want it otherwise, you'll just have to do what they've always done when they wanted the tropical scheme to land upright on its feet: fake the figures. The 'real' figures give a marvelously consistent account of themselves every time. The only thing wrong is that the graph itself virtually screamed about its unusualness and usefulness.
Some astrologers are astrology's worst enemies. Firebrace's farewell and delineation of Cyril Fagan's chart. To Cyril Fagan, the Re- Discoverer of Sidereal Astrology, as he phrased it, we who love the truth of the archetypal symbolism of the Star Constellation Zodiac owe an inexpressible debt. He was born Dublin, Ireland 6w15, 53n21 22 May Several birthtimes are in existence: R. Alexander Marr has released data on Fagan's radix "according to his [Fagan's] own information" as May 22nd, 12h 27m 48s UT, in Dublin Dunsink, with an additional refined rectification. Fagan has reported that his mother repeatedly told him he was born at noon.
He died in Tucson, Arizona, 5 January between 3 and 5 am. Fagan once wrote of that aspect that it was known to "bring the native out of retirement" and we hope that this will be true of his work. Firebrace, who as a friend and associate of Fagan's, wrote this after his passing: "He [Fagan] told me that it was on February 17, that he finally accepted the Sidereal Zodiac And by April 30, , Fagan had "finally accepted the Sidereal Solar Return" and later made his findings public in a series of articles entitled "Incidents and Accidents of Astrology" which ran in the A. Bulletin in He said it came together for him when he was dancing with his wife Pauline.
Evidently that 'straw' that broke the back of the Tropical Zodiac for Fagan were the Solar and Lunar Returns as he found that they did not work for predictive work in the precessing tropical framework and had fallen into disuse. We have found a May letter by Fagan in response to the use of the Solar Returns "corrected for precession," which letter very clearly states the implications for the tropical zodiac.
Those early studies with Solar Revolutions, as they were referred to, indeed started a revolution in thought. And so something new and very much rooted in the old was reborn into the world, as all great ideas must be in each age.
And this study and understanding of an astronomically correct archetypal symbolism implying meaning and connectedness in the universe is still growing. Bellairs for bringing to their notice the importance of the solar revolution as a prophetic instrument American Magazine, May It is not sufficiently realized that the famous priests of Nabu, who officiated in the temples of that god in Borsipps, Calakh and Nineveh, relied almost exclusively on solar and lunar returns for the success of their astrological forecasts. The kings examined the nativities of their generals and observed their solar revolutions and if they found that one of the returns indicated power and victory, they sent him against the enemy, otherwise they left him aside.
And they observed the nativities not only of their generals but of ambassadors to see if their anniversary indicated a successful result. If it signified prosperity they sent for them, but if not they appointed, instead, others whose anniversary did presage success. In the same manner kings and citizens chose food, drink, medicine, bought, sold and did everything according to their solar revolutions: and they used these things and left aside those likely to be hurtful that year.
They deduced both from their own nativities and those of others and acted accordingly. Men wishing to beget a son observed their wife's solar revolution as well as their own and if both signified procreation they cohabited with them; otherwise they looked for other women whose nativities did signify the birth of a son. So the study of solar revolutions is very useful and expedient. Why was it that the leading astrologers of the 19th century paid increasingly less attention to the computation of such charts, many of them dropping them altogether out of consideration?
Obviously they must have found them valueless. Then what made the ancients put such faith in them; why did they form the backbone of their vaticinations? Because the ancient method was fundamentally different from that now commonly employed. The Hemu-netru of Egypt and the priest of Nabu computed these figures for the Sun's return to the actual place it occupied among the fixed stars at birth, whereas modern astrologers calculate the chart for the Sun's return to its natal tropical longitude. The reader has only to compute the solar return by both methods to realize how very dissimilar are the charts.
For a middle-aged person there will be a difference of about 18 hours in time! In effect this implies that the modern method of calculating these returns is incorrect. Bellairs suggests, that the difficulty can be obviated by adding the amount of precession equivalent to the native's age to the Sun's longitude at birth, and then computing the solar revolution in the usual manner. But this compromise omits to take into consideration the corrections for aberration of light and for solar and lunar nutation. The corrections for aberration and solar nutation will be reasonably constant but that for lunar nutation will differ from year to year.
But apart from this there is a fundamental error involved in applying a correction for precession to the longitude of the sun. Let us consider the matter a little deeper. Astrologers recognize two methods of defining celestial positions; a the sidereal and b the tropical. In the sidereal method, measurements of time and space are made from some relatively fixed point in the heavens such as a convenient fixed star like Spica and Regulus. A sidereal day is the interval that elapses between two successive transits of the same fixed star across the midheaven; and a sidereal year is the interval that elapses between two successive conjunctions of the sun with one fixed star.
The sidereal coordinates are celestial longitude and latitude which remain constant for thousands of years except for minute changes of position due to the proper motions of the fixed stars. With the Egyptians, Babylonians, Assyrians, all longitudes were measured from a fixed star and not from the so-called "first point of Aries," the vernal equinox. In the post-Ptolemaical tropical system, measurements are made from the every receding equinoctial and tropical points, especially from the vernal-equinoctial point.
These move backwards among the fixed stars at the approximate rate of one degree in 72 years, for which reason the "zodiac" now in common use is frequently referred to as the "moving" not movable? The tropical system expresses time and space in terms of the seasonal year and its co-ordinates are Right Ascension and Declination.
A tropical day is the time that elapses between two successive transits of the vernal-point over the midheaven; and the tropical year is the time that elapses between two successive conjunctions of the Sun with the vernal point. As the latter recedes at about Now what happens when a correction for precession is applied to the Sun's longitude at birth, that is, to its position in the tropical "zodiac. To suggest such a procedure is tantamount to denying the validity of the modern zodiac for its "raison d'etre" is in its very tropicality. Therefore such a procedure is astronomically and astrologically inadmissible.
If--as the ancients found--it is correct to compute the solar revolution ex-precessionally, then on astronomical grounds we have no option but to compute it in terms of the sidereal fixed zodiac which for the Egyptians and Babylonians took its origin from Spica as fiducial in Virgo Prevented from following in the family tradition through almost totally impaired hearing since childhood, he turned his acutely enquiring mind to other things, many and varied, finally deciding to make the betterment of the subject he loved the most astrology, his life's work.
Dissatisfied with all available material on the subject, he decided to set out and find the answers for himself. He combed the libraries of many of the capitals of Europe and soon concluded that a working knowledge of astronomy and Egyptology was essential if the embryo of astrology was to be unearthed. These he mastered alone as he had done everything else. See also articles in American Astrology under his pseudonym, Ian Cowley, on mundane astrology. The most momentous and revolutionary astrological discovery of all time was made in by Cyril Fagan, the well-known astrologer and Egyptian scholar.
He discovered that the historical exaltation degrees of the zodiac originated in B. This led him into a whole series of further discoveries which are equally important to the archeologist, the chronologist, the historian, and the astrologer. First and foremost, he found that the so-called Egyptian decans were in fact PENTADS or 5-day star groups, a discovery that immediately led to the identification of most of them. He also solved the precise date of the Inauguration of the famous Sothic Cycle as well as dating the zodiacs of Esna and Denderah.
Without his insight, selflessness, application and dedication, sidereal astrology might not have had its modern renaissance for centuries to come. And when once more in years to come, this subject is restored to its rightful place The serious astrological world owes him a tremendous debt. Since Brigadier R.
Firebrace's delineation of Fagan's chart is interesting in many respects. Note that his approach to astrology is indicated by citing what is astrologically significant as based on what he knew of Cyril Fagan: "These do seem very apt for the man as I knew him and are indeed exemplified by his work in life. In the delineation of any chart, the ability to weigh the perceived characteristics of an individual against those set forth in a chart is a most important consideration, if not the most important issue. Neither the ability to weigh character by itself nor the added difficulty of judgement in reconciling character with a chart is a guarantee of studying astrology.
It comes from something deeper. It raises the point as to whether we can predict exact events or are we limited to discerning the nature of the influence present, say, in terms of symbolism.
This is a problem which should occupy our researchers. My opinion for what it is worth is that we cannot foretell exact events and that the effect of the influence will act in accordance with the spiritual development of the individual But I stick to my long held opinion that the most useful application of astrology is in consultation with the client.
Then we can translate the influence or the symbolism into possible events in the lives of our clients. Astrology is most akin to psychology. If we can find out the psychology of the individual from our map we shall have accomplished much. Over the years, he exemplified an innate dignity and extended his belief in the same dignity in everyone. We cannot maintain that the symbolism in one map will work out in events in exactly the same way as it will in another map But in true astrology, we are dealing with metaphysics, something beyond the physical life which we necessarily lead on this physical plane.
If there is truth in astrology This statement inevitably brings me to a consideration of Free Will Many astrologers would doubt that he [man] has free will and hold that man is controlled by his natal planets. And so indeed it often appears.
Pin on Zodiac and Astrology
But it can be said that the destiny of man is to control his planets and not the other way round. It may well be true too that the majority of us do not do this but that does not alter the statement that we should do so. So where lies our Free Will? It can only be said that Free Will is of the Spirit of Man and to the extent that we realize this and bring it into our being, so shall we attain true free will. A difficult task I will freely admit but a worthy aim in life. As part of this thinking I will not admit that any luminary or planet is bad.
Every planet is essentially for our good and can point the way in this life for us to utilize it for good. It is true that some planets, if at all, do seem to bring troubles in our humans lives, be they physical, material or mental. With most of us, for example, Saturn is not popular as it tends to bring hindrances, frustration, depression and other unpleasant effects. But on the real side, Saturn is the planet of duty, perseverance, of 'keeping on keeping on', of serious thought.
It is to this side of Saturn that we should attempt to tune. I speak as one who natally has Saturn in Leo within 14 minutes of the Sun. There were bad effects, a delicate childhood and an inferiority complex! I am trying to 'keep on keeping on' and I am afraid that some would say that the inferiority complex has changed to one of superiority! Cyril died peacefully on January 5, between 3 and 5 a. He had a fall and cut his head but seemed to be recovering when his weak heart failed. So we have lost the Father of Sidereal Astrology as I always called him.
I have always felt that the Taurus-Scorpio axis was that of the researcher and here he had 4 planets and these on the Mid- Heaven. Here is the down to earth man to be persuaded by facts and nothing else. Add to that a Taurean obstinacy or determination, if you prefer that word and it will seem that once his mind was made up nothing could shake him. But he demolished his opponents with reasoned argument and woe betide writers in astrological journals who betrayed their essential ignorance of the facts of astrological or astronomical life.
I think that Cyril enjoyed these controversies. As an Irishman he enjoyed a good fight. I think that this quality is shewn by both Sun and Moon being in aspect to Mars. He had lately discovered that Pluto is the planet of loneliness which I have confirmed in several cases, and I think that at heart, in spite of a devoted family, that he was a lonely man.
His Pluto is very near the Mid-Heaven. Some of the interpretations of the mid-points of his map are very illuminating. As far as I know he did not use them himself. But they give such readings as untiring creative work, influence on public through writing, desire to cause changes, obstinate pursuit of a particular aim. These do seem very apt for the man as I knew him and are indeed exemplified by his work in life.
Cyril began his astrological studies at the early age of 20 in and thus had completed his half century of constant work in studying all the techniques of astrology. He had the advantage of being a good mathematician and no calculation frightened him. In this field he was greatly helped by his old friend, James Hynes a real expert in this difficult subject.
Cyril was always ready to spend hours in intricate work to prove his point. He studied widely and deeply and was not averse to taking on in argument some of the astrological masters of the time. I have copies of a lengthy correspondence with Sepharial in which he certainly held his own. For nearly 30 years he was of course an adherent of the tropical zodiac.
In the late thirties he added to his repertoire a study of Egyptology and this enabled him later to study with understanding ancient Egyptian horoscopes and their symbolism. He was to find later that all ancient horoscopes, down to the oldest, were drawn in the sidereal zodiac. That was the discovery which was to change the course of his astrological life. He told me that it was on February 17th, , that he finally accepted the Sidereal Zodiac and within a week 'invented' the Sidereal Lunar Return. On April 30, he finally accepted the Sidereal Solar Return and made these discoveries public in a series of articles entitled "incidents and Accidents of Astrology' which ran in the A.
Since then he added the Anlunar and the Kinetic to his repertoire. His main problem had been to discover the ayanamsa or the difference for any particular date between the two zodiacs. After much work he found that in a map for the spring of B. The odds against this happening by chance are fantastic. From this map he worked out the ayanamsa of the date which enables all tropical ephemerides to be converted t the sidereal.
A lengthy statistical study by Garth Allen altered this ayanamsa by only 6 minutes and this was accepted by Fagan. At that time he regarded Spica as the marking point of the sidereal zodiac but lately, on finding that this ayanamsa puts ALDEBARAN in exactly 15d 0'0" of sidereal Taurus he felt that we should consider this fixed star as the marking point. Through the courtesy of Mr. Clancy he contributed to American Astrology Magazine articles on the sidereal entitled "Solunars" which were widely read all over the world.
These contain much of his wisdom. Must these remain buried in back numbers? I can only hope that someone will be able to write them up in a book on the sidereal. This would be a wonderful contribution to sidereal astrology. In his book Zodiacs Old and New he gave some details of his discovery and in "Symbolism of the Star Constellations" which is unfortunately out of print, he developed the sidereal theme.
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The essence of his wisdom in this respect is to be issued shortly in a new book entitled Astrological Origins. He set so much store by this book that it is a tragedy the he died before he could see it in print. He had other books planned including one on the Oktopos, an eightfold clockwise division of the ecliptic which he claimed was invented by Imhotep.
A life long supporter of the Campanus system, he had finally abandoned this in favour of the Oktopos which he had already begun to use in his "Solunars. This is now out off of print but I will do what I can to get it re-issued. At his death progressed Sun was almost exact square to progressed Saturn. This seems to have been the fatal aspect. Cyril was a very human man and a good friend. When he was in England I was in constant touch with him and from abroad we remained in constant communication through letters.
I shall miss him very much as a friend and the world will miss him as a great astrologer. Died 30 OCT Thanks to the irritating car salesman who sparked this harrumph by scorning astrology. Since my "interpretation" in astrology would follow from my basic axioms or beliefs about it, it is only fair that I present some explanation of said basic axioms. Basic 1: I believe that astrology is a way to wisdom, a means for directing the intuition through complex symbols, a science for the intuition, in other words, an art.
Basic 2: I believe that at best an interpretation can be suggestive, provocative, perhaps evocative, but not absolutely "right. Of course, that will require the reader's interpretation. A small boy yells, "Two cars are going to crash into my ball! An ecstatic mechanic looks and says, "A new blue Caddie is coming. Cadallac buys the poem for a commercial and the mechanic is doubly enriched, and he only noticed one car. Another man, an insurance man, looks up from a conversation and says, "Those guys in the Ford and Caddie are going to crash. One looks like a guy we insured last week. There go our profits.
I believe them all - each viewpoint in their own context. None has the ultimate truth. All judgments are ultimately based FIRST on one's subjective values which focus one's objective perceptions. A subjective judgment is much like an objective judgment: it depends on the observer and his viewpoint. And the judgment of the VALUE of any interpretation is subjective; truth is what we believe it to be. To illustrate, let me give the version of another observer from Indres Shah's The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin, a legendary wise fool: "Laws as such do not make people better," said Nasrudin to the King, "people must practice certain things in order to become attuned to inner truth.
This form of truth resembles apparent truth only slightly. He could make them practice truthfulness. His city was entered by a bridge. On this he built a gallows. The following day, when the gates were opened at dawn, the Captain of the Guard was stationed with a squad of troops to examine all who entered. An announcement was made: "Everyone will be questioned. If he tells the truth, he will be allowed to enter. If he lies, he will be hanged.
And this story no more right than either - just another streetwalker's version. But perhaps, provocative and suggestive. And there's always more! We have yet to hear from the fairy godmother!
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